The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence is one of the most remarkable drawings by Karel Škréta. The purpose of this drawing is unknown; in all probability, it was a study for an altarpiece that was perhaps never executed. The image shows strong Italian influence, resulting from the artist’s direct contact with Italian art dating to Škréta’s sojourn in Italy. In creating the composition, Škréta was undoubtedly also inspired by reproductive printmaking, for instance, the engraving by Cornelis Cort after the painting by Titian. Škréta’s knowledge of the Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence by Peter Paul Rubens is also apparent. Scholars discussed the scene’s iconography, especially the statue of Jupiter (that also appears in others of Škréta’s martyrdom scenes) and the cross on the base of the statue that symbolizes the triumph of Christian faith over paganism.